TCS NQT Previous Year Solve | Day 3 | Slot 1 (II) | Codewindow.in

Verbal Ability

Qs 2 to 5: Read the passage given below and answer the questions.

Man-made fibres are to be distinguished from natural fibres such as silk, cotton, and wool. Natural fibres also consist of polymers (in this case, biologically produced compounds such as cellulose and protein), but they emerge from the textile manufacturing process in a relatively unaltered state. Some man-made fibres, too, are derived from naturally occurring polymers. For instance, rayon and acetate, two of the first man-made fibres ever to be produced, are made of the same cellulose polymers that make up cotton, hemp, flax, and the structural fibres of wood. In the case of rayon and acetate, however, the cellulose is acquired in a radically altered state (usually from wood-pulp operations) and is further modified in order to be regenerated into practical cellulose-based fibres. Rayon and acetate therefore belong to a group of man-made fibres known as regenerated fibres.

Another group of man-made fibres (and by far the larger group) is the synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibres are made of polymers that do not occur naturally but instead are produced entirely in the chemical plant or laboratory, almost always from by-products of petroleum or natural gas. These polymers include nylon and polyethylene terephthalate, mentioned above, but they also include many other compounds such as the acrylics, the polyurethanes, and polypropylene. Synthetic fibres can be mass-produced to almost any set of required properties. Millions of tons are produced every year.

Q8 to Q11 Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below.

The field of behavioral economics blends ideas from psychology and economics, and it can provide valuable insight that individuals are not behaving in their own best interests.

Behavioral economics provides a framework to understand when and how people make errors. Systematic errors or biases recur predictably in particular circumstances. Lessons from behavioral economics can be used to create environments that nudge people toward wiser decisions and healthier lives.

Behavioral economics emerged against the backdrop of the traditional economic approach known as rational choice model. The rational person is assumed to correctly weigh costs and benefits and calculate the best choices for himself. The rational person is expected to know his preferences (both present and future), and never flip-flop between two contradictory desires. He has perfect self-control and can restrain impulses that may prevent him from achieving his long-term goals.

Traditional economics uses these assumptions to predict real human behavior. The standard policy advice that stems from this way of thinking is to give people as many choices as possible, and let them choose the one they like best (with minimum government intervention). Because they know their preferences better than government officials do. Individuals are in the best position to know what is best for them.

In contrast, behavioral economics shows that actual human beings do not act that way. People have limited cognitive abilities and a great deal of trouble exercising self-control. People often make choices that bear a mixed relationship to their own preference (happiness). They tend to choose the option that has the greatest immediate appeal at the cost of long-term happiness, such as taking drugs or overeating.

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